Back to top top How to cite. Regardless of the mode, on a timescale far longer than the duration of a seismic cycle, permanent uplift of subduction zone margins is typically expressed by the occurrence of exposed marine terraces or emerged sequences of wave-cut shore platforms e.
Because the shoreline angle i. Dating results provide a morpho-stratigraphic framework for the interpretation of the terraces i. The Makran subduction zone MSZ of southern Iran and Pakistan hosts spectacular examples of recently uplifted marine terraces.
These were described as early as the s Falcon, ; Harrison, but have remained largely unstudied in the last few decades. Therefore, the attribution of the different Makran terrace levels to past sea-level highstands has not yet been attempted.
Indeed, amongst the various subduction zones hosting marine terraces, the MSZ is one of the few cases where knowledge of the altitude of the Marine Isotopic Stage MIS 5e benchmark considered a global geodynamic marker is still lacking Pedoja et al. Here, we investigate 10 sequences of marine terraces along the western Makran using modern dating techniques combined with remote sensing. We present seven terrace maps, resulting from extensive https://inworldmeeting.pro/15p/y305.php, with the help of satellite imagery and a 12 m resolution digital elevation model DEM.
We were then able to identify the MIS 5e benchmark along the km long studied segment of the MSZ, improving the database on Cenozoic sequences of paleoshorelines Pedoja et al. Moreover, we observe uplift variations alongstrike of the subducting trench, which we discuss in the context of subduction zone upper plate deformation.
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This coastal strip is located near the middle of a large active accretionary complex, part of which is offshore and part of which lies behind the studied area further to the north Farhoudi and Karig, ; White and Ross, Fig. The subduction zone is pia mia dating history on the west and east by strike-slip fault zones linking the Makran trench to the neighboring continental collisional systems that are the Zagros and Himalaya, respectively.
The Eurasian overriding plate is divided into two micro-continental datings on earth x ray z new Lut and Helmand blocks separated by the Sistan suture zone, a dextral transitional region, reflecting the differential relative motion between the two blocks Fig.
Although most of this convergence seems to be accommodated by reverse faults within the prism, margin-parallel normal faulting is predominant in the coastal region Back and Morley, ; Burg et al. Black squares: terraces studied, visited and mapped in this paper Figs.
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Red lines and arrows: simplified major fault structures and relative motions. White dashed line: rough northern limit of the sedimentary accretionary prism. Green dashed line: shelf break. Blue circles: other occurrences of marine terraces along the Iranian light blue and Pakistani dark blue Makran.
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Orange triangles: active volcanoes. Faults and folds from the geological maps of Iran; Kahir and Peersohrab sheets, Samadian et al. Download The seismic activity of the MSZ is low compared to other subduction zones around the globe, although most studies agree that the potential for tsunamigenic megathrust earthquakes exists e. The Middle East earthquake catalog from Zare et al.
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In the western Makran, the two last great earthquakes are historical events from and Ambraseys and Melville, ; Heidarzadeh et al. The sinistral strike-slip Sonne Fault that obliquely crosses the wedge off Gwadar city Fig. Moreover, tomographic studies have pinpointed contrasting seismic wave propagation velocities in the two segments Al-Lazki et al. Thus, the western MSZ has the potential to produce a catastrophic earthquake Penney et al.
The coastal plain is locally interrupted and overlooked by prominent rocky headlands, 10 to 30 km in length, hosting emerged sequences of marine terraces. The headlands are separated by wide omega-shaped bays that exhibit sequences of Holocene prograding beach ridges up to 10 km long Gharibreza, ; Shah-Hosseini et al.
The Makran coast faces the Oman Sea, situated in the northern part of the Indian Ocean, and has a dating on earth x ray z new range between 1. The studied area of Chabahar receives waves coming mostly from the SSE and SW, with significant wave height of 1 to 3 m and periods between 4 and 8 s Saket and Etemad-shahidi, The climate is arid to semiarid and vegetation is sparse.
Since then, the Pleistocene marine terraces have been the focus of several studies e. The marine terraces of the Makran have been described as flat-topped, isolated hills, with a wave-cut unconformity capped by a shelly sandstone layer of shoreface to foreshore deposits Falcon, ; Little, ; Page et al.
Since the marine terraces are built on top of the Tertiary sedimentary sequences of the Makran accretionary prism, the bedrock sandstones units can be misinterpreted as terrace deposits. Maps of the terraces have been published by a few authors Little, ; Page et al.
Some sequences of terraces have been described Page et al. Dating of the MSZ marine terrace deposits has been undertaken by several authors Haghipour et al. Due to the lack of coral reefs in the MSZ, most of these results come from 14C dating of mollusk shells. Some authors have argued that results older than 20 ka should be minimum ages, due to the limitations of the 14C method Haghipour et al.
The only dated datings on earth x ray z new older than the last glacial period are from Page et al. They dated the Jask terrace and one level of the Konarak terraces with these methods, both yielding an age coeval within errors to the last maximum interglacial MIS 5e. These ages are considered reliable by the authors. Numerous works aimed at reconstructing eustatic sea-level curves for the late Quaternary have been performed.
While the general trends are known, uncertainties concerning the timing and, especially, the magnitude of sea-level fluctuations are still significant. Coral-based sea-level reconstructions are sensitive to global uncertainties such as coral dating precision and coral growth depth distribution, as well as uncertainties inherent to each locality, such as uplift rate variations through time and glacial—isostatic adjustment GIA Creveling et al.
Because of these uncertainties.
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