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Abstract Making trade-offs between ecological teeb datings chat and meet profiles and other contributors to human well-being is a difficult but critical process that requires valuation. This allows both better recognition of the ecological, social, and economic trade-offs and also allows us to bill those who use up or destroy ecological services and reward those that produce or enhance them. It also aids improved ecosystems policy.
In this paper we clarify some of the controversies in defining the contributions to human well-being from functioning ecosystems, many of which people are not even aware of. We go on to describe the applicability of the various valuation methods that can be used in estimating the benefits of ecosystem services.
Finally, we describe some recent case studies and lay out the research agenda for ecosystem services analysis, modeling, and valuation going forward. Ecosystem processes and functions may contribute to ecosystem services, but they are not synonymous as they describe biophysical relationships such as the carbon cycle and exist regardless of whether or not humans benefit [ 34 ].
Ecosystem services, on the other hand, only exist if they contribute to human well-being and cannot be defined independently [ 5 ]. In order for these benefits to be realized, natural capital natural ecosystems and their products that do not require human activity to build or maintain, such as fish stocks must be combined with other forms of capital that do require human intervention to build and maintain.
These include: built or manufactured capital e.
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These four general types of capital are all required in complex combinations to produce any and all human benefits. Ecosystem services can thus be defined as the relative contribution of natural capital to the production of human benefits, in combination with the three other forms of capital.
These benefits can involve the link, option to use, or mere appreciation of the existence of natural capital.
For example, fish delivered to people as food require fishing boats built capitalfisherfolk human capitaland fishing communities social capital to produce. Regulating services—services that regulate different aspects of the integrated system.
These are services that combine with the other three capitals to produce flood control, storm protection, water regulation, human disease regulation, water purification, air quality maintenance, pollination, pest control, and climate control.
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For example, the storm protection services of coastal wetlands require the wetlands and the built infrastructure, people, and communities to be protected. These services are generally not marketed but have clear value to society.
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For example, to produce a recreational teeb dating chat and meet profiles requires a beautiful natural asset a lakein combination with built infrastructure a road, trail, dock, and so onhuman capital people able to appreciate the lake experienceand social capital family, friends, and institutions that make the lake accessible and safe. These services affect human well-being indirectly by maintaining processes necessary for provisioning, regulating, and cultural services.
They also refer to the ecosystem services that have not yet been combined with built, human, and social capital to produce human benefits but nevertheless underlie these benefits.
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For example, net primary production is an ecosystem function that supports carbon sequestration and removal from the atmosphere, which combines with built, human, and social capital to provide the benefit of climate regulation.
This categorization leads to a very broad definition of services, limited only by the requirement of a contribution to human well-being. Even without any subsequent valuation, explicitly listing the services derived from an ecosystem can help ensure appropriate recognition of their importance.
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This can help make the analysis of ecological systems more transparent and can help decision makers weigh up the relative merits of the different options before them. Valuation Many ecosystem services are public goods. This means that multiple users can simultaneously benefit from using them and it is difficult to exclude people from benefiting from them. Instead, some form of community or group choice process is needed.
As ecosystem services being public goods are generally not traded in markets, we need to develop other methods to assess their value. There are a number of methods that can be used to estimate or measure benefits from ecosystems. Valuation can be expressed in several ways, including money, physical units, or indices. Economists have developed a number of valuation methods that typically use monetary units see [ 8 ] while ecologists and others have developed measures expressed in a variety of nonmonetary units such as biophysical trade-offs cf.
There are two main methods for estimating monetary values: revealed and stated preferences. Both of theses typically involve the use of sophisticated statistical methods to tease out the values [ 10 ]. Examples include production-oriented valuation that looks at changes in direct-use values from products actually extracted from.
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